Street Fighter, commonly abbreviated as SF, is a fighting video game franchise developed and published by Capcom. The second game in the series is credited with establishing many of the conventions of the one-on-one fighting genre. The game's playable characters originate from different countries around the world, each with a unique fighting style. It is Capcom's third best-selling franchise behind Resident Evil and Monster Hunter, having sold 39 million copies worldwide. The first game in the series was released in 1987, since then, five other main series games, as well as various spin-offs and crossovers, have been released. Street Fighter, designed by Takashi Nishiyama and Hiroshi Matsumoto, made its debut in arcades, in 1987. In this game, the player takes control of martial artist Ryu, who competes in a worldwide martial arts tournament, spanning five countries and 10 opponents. A second player can join in at any time and take control of Ryu's American rival, Ken.
The player can perform three types of punch and kick attacks, each varying in speed and strength, and three special attacks: the Hadouken, Shoryuken, and Tatsumaki Senpukyaku. These are performed by executing special button combinations with the controls.
Street Fighter was ported to many popular home computer systems of the time, like the PC. In 1988, it was released on the NEC Avenue TurboGrafx-CD console under the name Fighting Street. Street Fighter was also later included in Capcom Classics Collection: Remixed for the PlayStation Portable and Capcom Classics Collection Vol. 2 for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. Street Fighter II: The World Warrior was released in 1991, and was the first true sequel to the original Street Fighter. This release followed an unsuccessful attempt to brand the 1989 beat 'em up game Final Fight and the officially commissioned spin-off Human Killing Machine as Street Fighter sequels. It was one of the earliest arcade games for Capcom's CP System hardware and was designed by Akira Nishitani and Akira Yasuda, who were also responsible for Final Fight and Forgotten Worlds.
Street Fighter II is the first one-on-one fighting game to give players a choice from a variety of player characters with different moves. The choice of multiple available characters allows for more varied matches. In this game, each player character had a unique fighting style with approximately 30 or more moves, including then-new grappling moves and throws, as well as two or three special attacks per character. In the single-player mode, the player's chosen character is pitted sequentially against the seven other main characters before confronting the final four boss opponents, who consist of CPU-controlled characters not selectable by the player. As in the original, a second player could join in at any point during single player mode and compete against the other player in competitive matches.
The original Japanese version of Street Fighter II introduced an African-American boxer boss character, sharing the physical characteristics and likeness of real-life boxer Mike Tyson. In order to avoid a likeness infringement lawsuit from Tyson, Capcom rotated the names of three of the boss characters for international versions of the game. The final boss, named Vega in the Japanese version, was given the M. Bison name, the talon-wielding Spanish warrior, named Balrog in the Japanese version, was renamed Vega, and the boxer became Balrog. Street Fighter II eclipsed its predecessor in popularity, eventually turning Street Fighter into a multimedia franchise. The release of the game had an unexpected impact on gaming and was the beginning of a massive phenomenon. By 1993, sales of Street Fighter II exceeded $1.5 billion in revenue (equivalent to over $2.64 billion in 2017). By 1995, Street Fighter II and Street Fighter II: Champion Edition arcade machines had exceeded $2.312 billion (9.25 billion quarters) in gross revenue (equivalent to over $4.07 billion in 2017). In addition, the video game console ports sold more than 14 million copies for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System and Sega Genesis platforms. The first official update to the series was Street Fighter II': Champion Edition, pronounced Street Fighter II Dash in Japan, as noted by the prime notation on the logo. In this game, players are allowed to play as the four computer-controlled boss characters and two players are able to choose the same character. In this case, one character wears an alternate color pattern. The game also features slightly improved graphics, including differently colored backgrounds and refined gameplay. A second upgrade, titled Street Fighter II' Turbo: Hyper Fighting, called Street Fighter II Dash Turbo in Japan, was produced in response to the various bootleg editions of the game. Hyper Fighting offers faster gameplay than its predecessors, different character costume colors, and new special techniques.
Street Fighter III: New Generation made its debut in the arcades on the CPS3 hardware in 1997. Street Fighter III discards most of the character roster from previous games, keeping only Ryu and Ken, introducing several new characters in their place. The most notable of these is the grappler Alex, who was designed to be the new lead character of the game, and Gill, who replaced Bison as the game's main antagonist. Street Fighter III introduced the "Super Arts" selection system and the ability to parry an opponent's attack. Several months after Street Fighter III: New Generation's release, it was followed by Street Fighter III: 2nd Impact, which made adjustments to the gameplay, added two new characters, and featured the return of Akuma as a playable character. Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike, released in 1999 as the third and last iteration of Street Fighter III, brings back Chun-Li and adds four new characters. The first two Street Fighter III games were ported to the Dreamcast as a compilation titled Double Impact. Ports of 3rd Strike were released for the Dreamcast as a standalone game, then included in the compilation Street Fighter Anniversary Collection for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. Gill also became a playable secret character in the console versions, although he can still be played on the arcade version by using Twelve's X.C.O.P.Y. super art. In 2010, Capcom announced Street Fighter III 3rd Strike: Online Edition.
In the history of esports, certain highlights have managed to transcend games. Plays by the players that where so incredible that no fan, regardless of game loyalty, can deny their brilliance. Think of Dota 2’s “the Play”, coldzera’s Jumping AWP in CS:GO and League of Legends’ “the xPeke”. However, before any others is one that stands alone. A play which is arguably the original iconic esports moment and is quite possibly the most influential of them all: EVO Moment 37. Daigo Umehara (Japanese: 梅原 大吾 Hepburn: Umehara Daigo, born 19 May 1981) is a Japanese arcade fighting video game player. He specializes in 2D arcade fighting games, mainly those released by Capcom. Known as "Daigo" or "The Beast" in the West and "Umehara" or "Ume" in Japan, Daigo is one of the world's most famous Street Fighter players, and is often considered its greatest as well. He currently holds a world record of "the most successful player in major tournaments of Street Fighter" in Guinness World Records. Before properly being called a pro gamer from signing a sponsorship deal with Mad Catz, Japanese media usually referred to Daigo as "the god of 2D fighting games”. Umehara started becoming famous internationally from the YouTube video clips of his match in the Losers bracket fina in Evolution Championship Series (World Championship) 2004's Street Fighter III: 3rd Strike competition where he made a dramatic comeback against Justin Wong's Chun-Li. In the final round of match 1, Umehara's Ken was down to his last pixel of vitality. At this point, any special attack would knock Umehara's character out if connected, since special attacks deal chip damage even when blocked. In an attempt to win the round, Wong attempted to hit Umehara's Ken with Chun-Li's multihit Super Art move Houyoku-sen ("phoenix-wing fan"). However, instead of avoiding it, Umehara chose to "Parry," a technique whereby an incoming attack is blocked without the player losing any health, but by doing so requires moving toward opponent's direction in the same time a hit lands, within four of thirty frames  of the impact animation. After the move was launched, not only were all 15 hits parried, but Umehara also managed to get into a good position to make a powerful attacking combo that knocked Chun-Li out instead. This moment, and the ecstatic cheering of the spectators that followed, was recorded and later spread on the Internet, gaining immense popularity. In 2011, Kotaku ranked it first place in its list of "The 10 Best Moments in Pro-Gaming History".
The original Street Fighter IV game concept, Street Fighter IV Flashback, never made it past the proposal stage. On October 17, 2007, more than eight years since the release of Street Fighter III 3rd Strike for the arcades, Capcom unveiled Street Fighter IV at a Capcom Gamers Day event in London. Conceived as a direct sequel to the early Street Fighter II games (particularly Super Street Fighter II Turbo), Street Fighter IV features the return of the original twelve world warriors and recurring hidden character Akuma, along with four new characters (as well as a new boss character) in a storyline chronologically set between Street Fighter II and Street Fighter III. The gameplay, while still 2D, features cel-shaded 3D graphics inspired by Japanese sumi-e paintings. The Super Combo system, a Street Fighter mainstay since Super Turbo, returns along with new counter-attacking techniques called "Focus Attacks" ("Saving Attacks" in Japan), as well as new "Ultra Combo" moves, similar to the Rage Gauge seen in games from SNK Playmore. The arcade version, which runs on the Taito Type X2 hardware, was distributed in Japan on July 2008, with a limited release in North America and the United Kingdom in select arcades in August. A home version was released in North America and Europe in February 2009 on the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, and in July 2009 for Windows PC. This features an expanded character roster, as well as all-new animated segments that show each character's backstory, and a training mode similar to the Expert Challenges in Street Fighter EX. The cast includes six characters new to the Street Fighter series. Yoshinori Ono had hinted that the only two Street Fighter II characters absent from the game, Dee Jay and T. Hawk, could be available in the game at a later date. Instead, they were to be included in a whole new version of the game. On September 28, 2009, Capcom announced Super Street Fighter IV. The game includes ten additional characters including two characters new to the franchise: Korean taekwondo fighter Juri and Turkish oil wrestler Hakan. Capcom implemented character balance adjustments and added second Ultra moves for each character. The game features an improved online experience with new modes of play. The game was released on April 27, 2010 for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 at a discounted price point. If a Street Fighter IV savefile is detected on the system of play, two additional character colors (ink and sketch effect) are available. Super Street Fighter IV: Arcade Edition was released on December 16, 2010, containing all of the content from the console release, and featuring four additional characters: Yun and Yang from Street Fighter III, as well as Evil Ryu and Oni, an alternate version of Ryu and Akuma, respectively. Seth Killian of Capcom said Arcade Edition was to be the last update to the IV series. On June 15, at E3 2010, a portable conversion of Super Street Fighter IV was confirmed for the Nintendo 3DS. Super Street Fighter IV: 3D Edition features 3D stereoscopic technology, multiplayer, and all thirty-five characters from the original Super Street Fighter IV release. At Evo 2011, Ono announced that a balance patch for Super Street Fighter IV: Arcade Edition had been approved by Capcom. The patch was free of charge. On July 14, 2013, a new update for Street Fighter IV titled Ultra Street Fighter IV was announced at the 2013 Evolution Championship Series. The new edition was released in 2014 as an arcade game, a DLC add-on for existing console versions of Super Street Fighter IV, and as a standalone game containing DLC from previous iterations. Along with various tweaks and additional modes and stages, the update adds five additional characters, consisting of Rolento, Elena, Poison and Hugo, who previously appeared in Street Fighter x Tekken, plus an all-new character, Decapre. Many of the gameplay changes are based on feedback from fans and Capcom community employee Peter Rosas, best known in the fighting game tournament scene as ComboFiend. On December 6, 2014, the game was confirmed to arrive on next generation consoles with a PlayStation 4 version releasing in Spring 2015.